After Zadar, according to the votes of the visitors of the European Best Destinations page, was chosen as the best European destination in 2016, the Tourist Board of the City of Zadar issued a statement. We are transmitting the press release in its entirety:Maximilien Lejenue: We are happy and proud of ZadarIn a few weeks, as impressions gather and the dust settles over the selection of the best European destination in 2016, the esteemed Belgian portal “European Best Destinations”, which is followed by about 2,2 million inhabitants of the EU and the world, EBD portal director Maximilien Lejenue will pack things and to come to – Zadar.The planned ceremony of declaring the best destination in Europe and handing over the award will not go without the first man of the Brussels portal that promotes culture, tourism, destinations and natural beauties of the European continent, and will take place in a city that left behind many tourism greats. European metropolises. Every fifth vote in the election went to Zadar, and that fact fascinated director Lejenue as well. Although, naturally, he would congratulate any winner in the same way, in constant contacts with the director of “European Best Destinations”, there was still some sympathy and sincere fascination with the city “different from all others” – as he presented it to readers of the portal.“You did an amazing job! We are really happy and proud that Zadar is the best European destination for 2016. You can’t even imagine how glad we are that you are at the top of Europe! ” – said Lejenue, congratulating the entire team of the Tourist Board of the City of Zadar on their incredible work, as well as the people who brought the nominated Croatian destination closer to the whole world with the #birajzadar campaign.
The always welcome, timeless drama by Ivo Vojnović and the well-received last year’s premiere, Dubrovnik trilogy, in the dramaturgical adaptation by Mani Gotovac and directed by dancer and choreographer Staša Zurovac, is on the program of the 67th Dubrovnik Summer Festival on July 16, 17 and 18.This, always relevant for Dubrovnik work by the great Dubrovnik author Ivo Vojnović, which depicts the fall of the Republic and the decline of the Dubrovnik nobility who refuse to accept change and therefore disappear in self-destruction, is conceived as a homage to Kosta Spaić and his legendary director. Dubrovnik trilogies, but this new interpretation for the basic motives has the relations of mother and daughter, father and son, and woman and man who love each other. “Zurovac’s reading of this classic of Croatian modernism is poetic and reduced, focused on the actor’s expression, psychologically delicate, soft, finely nuanced,” wrote the theater critic of Politika Ana Tasić about last year’s premiere.The festival drama ensemble composed of the best actors of the Croatian theater, doyen and students, consists of: Mislav Čavajda who plays in all three parts, namely Orsat, Captain Lasić and Tudizi; Jadranka Đokić who also plays in all three parts, namely Desha, Paul and Baroness Lydia; Srdjana Simunovic in the roles of Kristina, Ore and Ida he replaces Judita Franković; Milka Podrug Kokotovic Orsat’s aunt is Ana Menze-Bobali, Dubravka Miletić is Mare Beneša in “Twilight” doc Doris Saric Kukuljica plays Mrs. Mara in “On the Terrace”, a Boris Svrtan kneza u „Allons enfants!“ te gospara Lukšu u „Na taraci“. Mladi Nikola Baće plays Wolf, for which he was awarded the Orlando for the best achievements in the drama program of the 66th Games last year. Significant roles were also played by Maro Martinović, Nikša Kušelj, Helena buljan, Nikša Butijer, Gloria Dubelj, Andrey Kopchok, Ivan Čuić, Adrian Pezdirc, Mateo Videk, Maro Drobnić, Nikola Sekulo, Ivona Radić i Laura Refrigerator. Matej Mestrovic he composed the music he performed in the play and performed on the piano, he did the costume design Doris Kristić, and light shaped Marko Mijatović.Festival audience Dubrovnik trilogy this summer can be seen in three performances – July 16, 17 and 18, at the Rector’s Palace and in front of the Palace starting at 21:30 p.m.
On the last weekend in July, as reported by HAK, the largest number of tourists is expected, which means even greater crowds than during the other weekends of the month.This weekend will be marked by significant all-day crowds and columns on our roads, border crossings, ferry docks and ports as well as near tourist towns on the coast. At the end of the weekend, school ends in several provinces in Germany, and August 1 marks the beginning of Ferragosto in Italy, from where a large number of tourists will head to the Adriatic.Another event will mark this weekend, ie Saturday, July 30, and that is the visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin to Slovenia, and certain parts of the roads in the area of northern Slovenia and Ljubljana will be closed. Therefore, many tourists will choose alternative routes to Croatia, or from Croatia to Europe.HAK TRAFFIC FORECASTOn Friday, July 29, we expect heavy traffic in the afternoon towards the sea, but also on the A3 Bregana-Lipovac highway in the east direction.Saturday, August 30th will mark the columns from the early morning hours on the motorways A2 Zagreb-Macelj and A4 Zagreb-Goričan in the direction of Zagreb, and then on the motorway A1 Zagreb-Split-Ploče, especially between Zagreb and Bosiljevo, and A6 Rijeka-Zagreb in the direction of the sea. At the Zaprešić (A2) and Sveta Helena (A4) toll stations, columns are expected as early as 6 am, which will then flow along the Zagreb bypass (A3) towards Jankomir and Buzin, respectively, to connect at the Lučko toll station.The biggest crowds at the Lučko toll station, at the entrance to the highway, in the direction of the sea will be from 5 am to 17 pm, while at the exit towards Zagreb, the columns are expected from 10 am to 18 pm. Apart from Lučko, crowds are also expected on the Istrian Y, from the direction of the Kaštel and Plovanija border crossings.At the Trakošćan toll station (A2 Zagreb-Macelj), on Saturday afternoon, we expect columns at the exit towards the Macelj border crossing, which should last until the evening.Longer waits are expected in the ferry ports of Stinica, Prizna, Brestova and Valbiska, as well as in the ports of Zadar and Split. Ferries and catamarans will sail according to the summer sailing schedule, and if the need arises, additional lines will be introduced.We expect waits at most border crossings, and more pronounced columns will be at the crossings with Slovenia (Kaštel, Plovanija, Rupa, Pasjak and Macelj), Hungary (Goričan), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Metković, Klek, Zaton Doli, Slavonski Brod, Stara Gradiška, Ličko Petrovo Selo…) and Montenegro (Karasovići). As of Friday, long waits are possible at the exit at the border crossing with Serbia on Bajakovo, which will last throughout the weekend.In return the traffic will be heavy on Saturday and Sunday from 10 a.m. to 20 p.m. on all road routes from the direction of the sea inland, especially on Lučko (exit from the A1 motorway), Istrian Y, Krk bridge, as well as on the A2 Zagreb-Macelj motorway (toll Trakošćan) and A4 Zagreb-Goričan, and on the A3 Bregana-Lipovac (Zagreb-East toll). It is recommended that instead of Lučko, the Demerje toll station be used to exit the A1 motorway, where, in addition to the ENC, tolls can be paid with credit and debit cards, and on Saturdays toll payment will be possible.Follow the traffic situation on the website HAK.
Share on Facebook Share LinkedIn Researchers from the Institute and Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, (Brazil); the Imperial College of London, (UK); the University of Western Australia (Australia) and the University of Toronto (Canada) have just published a study in the Journal of Psychopharmacology suggesting that what had been clustered as anxiety disorders is not homogenous in terms of functioning of the serotonergic system.The researchers reanalyzed the results of six other studies that had evaluated the effects of the acute reduction of tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin (a substance that makes the communication between neurons), in patients who had received successful treatment for their disorder with either a serotonergic antidepressant action or cognitive-behavioral therapy for individual anxiety disorders. This paradigm is known to produce abrupt lowering in serotonin levels in the body, allowing inferences about the role of this neurotransmitter in innumerous disorders and psychological functions.The reanalysis confirmed, directly in subjects with disorders psychiatric, what could be predicted by a theory developed by the researchers Bill Deakin (University of Manchester, UK) and Frederico Graeff (University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil). According to this theory, acute reductions in serotonergic levels would cause important worsening of symptoms in patients with a subgroup of disorders more related to fear, but not in those with psychiatric disorders more related to anxiety, even though all of them are grouped under the single term “anxiety disorders” and adequately treated with serotonergic antidepressants. Pinterest Share on Twitter Email “The idea of responses to threatening stimuli causing feelings and emotions related to fear and anxiety, as well as a myriad of subgroups within these responses, is not new. However, our study gives an important step towards sub clustering of disorders once it is based on one of the most important neurotransmitters involved in these reactions and in the fact that it was tested in actual psychiatric patients” says Corchs.According to the authors, this distinction is important to the ongoing efforts in order to re categorize psychiatric disorders based on etiological variables and may also help to give direction to the development of new treatments. “Importantly, the data must be interpreted in the light of the fact that our results are a reanalysis of studies that had as main objective the assessment of the effects of acute tryptophan depletion in samples grouped by disorders.Further studies need to be developed with specific methodology to identify the exact clinical characteristics of patients who have these two pharmacological profiles independently of the current diagnostic criteria of the DSM and ICD. This may contribute to future etiology-based diagnostic criteria”, highlights Corchs.
Share on Facebook The researchers looked at the relationship between delirium and survival time in 322 patients with terminal cancer entering palliative care. Delirium refers to confusion, altered awareness, or altered thoughts. It can result from many different illnesses, medications, and other causes.Delirium was divided into subtypes according to standard DSM-5 criteria: hyperactive delirium, with increased motor activity, loss of control, and restlessness; hypoactive delirium, with decreased activity, decreased speech, and reduced awareness. Patients with normal psychomotor activity or fluctuating activity levels were classified as having “mixed” delirium.About 30 percent of patients were diagnosed with delirium on entering palliative care. Of these, the delirium subtype was hyperactive in about 15 percent of patients, hypoactive in 34 percent, and mixed in 51 percent.Survival time after entering palliative care was shorter for patients with delirium: median 17 days, compared to 28 days for those without delirium. However, the difference was significant only for patients with hypoactive or mixed delirium–with median survival times of 14 and 15 days, respectively.These differences remained significant after adjustment for other factors. For patients with hyperactive delirium, survival was not different from that in patients without delirium.While delirium was more common in older patients, the effects on time to death were actually stronger in younger patients. That was consistent with previous studies suggesting shorter survival times in younger patients diagnosed with deliriumWhy are different delirium subtypes associated with differing survival times? It may have to do with differences in the underlying causes of and treatment responses. Hyperactive delirium is commonly related to reversible causes, such as medication side effects.“In contrast, hypoactive delirium is generally related to hypoxia [decreased oxygen levels], metabolic disturbances, and multi-organ failure,” Dr. Kim explains. “Therefore, hypoactive delirium could be associated with a higher mortality rate than hyperactive delirium.”Dr. Kim adds, “Also, the earlier mortality in younger patients overturns a conventional assumption for survival prediction of delirium. Although delirium was more prevalent in older patients, as known, the irony is that delirium predicted shorter survival in younger patients.”Accurate predictions of survival time in terminally ill patients are important for many reasons–“in terms of ensuring good clinical decision making, developing care strategies, and preparing for the end of life in a dignified manner.” The researchers conclude, “Thus, the present findings could facilitate more precise predictions of survival, allowing families to prepare for the patient’s death.” Share on Twitter Pinterest Share LinkedIn In cancer patients nearing the end of life, certain subtypes of delirium–specifically, hypoactive and “mixed” delirium–are a strong indicator that death will come soon, reports a study in Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine, the official journal of the American Psychosomatic Society. The journal is published by Wolters Kluwer.“Terminally ill patients with the hypoactive or mixed subtypes of delirium showed a higher probability of imminent death, with even earlier mortality among younger patients,” according to the new research by Sung-Wan Kim, MD, and colleagues of Chonnam National University Medical School Gwangju, Republic of Korea. They believe their findings might help make more accurate predictions of survival in patients nearing the end of life.Shorter Survival in Patients with Hypoactive/Mixed Delirium Email
While embodied in an adult avatar, participants were trained to express compassion towards a distressed virtual child. As they talked to the child it appeared to gradually stop crying and respond positively to the compassion. After a few minutes the patients were embodied in the virtual child and saw the adult avatar deliver their own compassionate words and gestures to them. This brief 8-minute scenario was repeated three times at weekly intervals, and patients were followed up a month later.“People who struggle with anxiety and depression can be excessively self-critical when things go wrong in their lives,” explains study lead Professor Chris Brewin (UCL Clinical, Educational & Health Psychology). “In this study, by comforting the child and then hearing their own words back, patients are indirectly giving themselves compassion. The aim was to teach patients to be more compassionate towards themselves and less self-critical, and we saw promising results. A month after the study, several patients described how their experience had changed their response to real-life situations in which they would previously have been self-critical.”The study offers a promising proof-of-concept, but as a small trial without a control group it cannot show whether the intervention is responsible for the clinical improvement in patients.“We now hope to develop the technique further to conduct a larger controlled trial, so that we can confidently determine any clinical benefit,” says co-author Professor Mel Slater (ICREA-University of Barcelona and UCL Computer Science). “If a substantial benefit is seen, then this therapy could have huge potential. The recent marketing of low-cost home virtual reality systems means that methods such as this could potentially be part of every home and be used on a widespread basis.” Share on Facebook Share Share on Twitter Email An immersive virtual reality therapy could help people with depression to be less critical and more compassionate towards themselves, reducing depressive symptoms, finds a new study from UCL (University College London) and ICREA-University of Barcelona.The therapy, previously tested by healthy volunteers, was used by 15 depression patients aged 23-61. Nine reported reduced depressive symptoms a month after the therapy, of whom four experienced a clinically significant drop in depression severity. The study is published in the British Journal of Psychiatry Open and was funded by the Medical Research Council.Patients in the study wore a virtual reality headset to see from the perspective of a life-size ‘avatar’ or virtual body. Seeing this virtual body in a mirror moving in the same way as their own body typically produces the illusion that this is their own body. This is called ’embodiment’. LinkedIn Pinterest
Several applicable results were observed following a host of statistical comparisons. Non-suicidal overdoses were found to be more similar to suicide attempts than other SIB incidents in the average age of onset, as both tend to occur when older. In contrast, they were more closely related to non-suicidal SIBs when comparing averaged ratings of the desire for death. Beliefs in the likelihood of death were highest in suicide attempts, followed by non-suicidal overdoses and were lowest in other SIBs. Additionally, it was discovered that many SIBs without overtly deadly purposes (including non-suicidal overdoses) still carry a measurable amount of suicidal intent.The failure to develop consistent definitions of SIBs (like overdoses) is a problem that undoubtedly restricts the effectiveness of related studies and the methods derived from them. This investigation, while being limited by a mostly-female and small sample size, provides evidence that non-suicidal overdoses require some form of recognized classification alongside suicide attempts and other SIBs.A particularly stubborn issue with past definitions was the fact that intent is very hard to decipher in overdoses that resemble suicide attempts, but this new research shows that most other forms of SIB are also based on an observable amount of suicidal ambivalence. With this barrier overcome it may now be possible to develop useful and consistent definitions of overdoses and other SIBs. Email Drug overdoses are a relatively common way to attempt suicide. There are also many overdose cases where the intent is to cause self-harm but not death. Usually, when people commit intentional self-harm the act is considered to be either suicidal or non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (SIB). However, due to an unresolved debate about definitions, non-fatal overdoses are traditionally not classified as being self-injurious at all.Researchers Kathryn Fox, Alexander Millner and Joseph Franklin recognized this deficiency as a barrier to developing effective treatment methods, and designed an empirical study to help develop a better system for classifying overdoses.Participants in this investigation, published online in the academic journal Psychology Research, were recruited from online forums related to self-injury and associated psychopathologies. In total 183 young people were included in the analysis. All subjects met the condition that they had experienced 5 SIB incidents, one suicide attempt or one overdose without suicidal intentions within the past year. Surveys were completed to measure the frequency of SIBs, including overdoses, along with intentions (desire to die and belief that they would die) during these events. Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter LinkedIn Pinterest
Share on Facebook There is a direct relation between the sexual objectification of girls and aggression towards them, research by psychologists at the University of Kent has shown.The study, which looked at youth members of gangs as well as those with no gang affiliation, provides the first evidence of a link between objectification and non-sexual aggression in young people.Dr Eduardo Vasquez and colleagues at the University’s School of Psychology, together with a former student, found that higher levels of objectification were significant predictors of aggression towards girls. Share on Twitter Email Pinterest LinkedIn Share Their findings are consistent with the claim that, among other negative outcomes, the perception of women as nothing but sexual objects also evokes aggression against them.The research also established that watching television and playing violent video games were positively correlated with both sexual objectification and aggression towards girls.The study featured 273 participants aged 12 to 16 years old from a secondary school in London. The school is located in an area experiencing problems with gangs and delinquency.The findings showed that the objectification-aggression link manifests itself at least as early as the teenage years, leading to the suggestion that the detrimental effects of perceiving females as objects begin at an early stage of development.This, in turn, has the potential to be further reinforced and strengthened over a number of years, suggest the researchers, thereby becoming ‘more robust and difficult to change’. The study also suggests that the factors that might allow objectification to influence children – such as violent video games or sexist media – poses a potentially serious risk of increasing anti-social acts towards girls.The research, entitled “The sexual objectification of girls and aggression towards them in gang and non-gang affiliated youth“, (Eduardo A. Vasquez, Kolawole Osinnowo, Afroditi Pina, Cheyra Bell – University of Kent; Louisa Ball) is published in the journal Psychology, Crime, and Law.
Share on Facebook Email Share on Twitter LinkedIn Share Pinterest For the first time a “tipping point” molecular link between the blood sugar glucose and Alzheimer’s disease has been established by scientists, who have shown that excess glucose damages a vital enzyme involved with inflammation response to the early stages of Alzheimer’s.Abnormally high blood sugar levels, or hyperglycaemia, is well-known as a characteristic of diabetes and obesity, but its link to Alzheimer’s disease is less familiar.Diabetes patients have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease compared to healthy individuals. In Alzheimer’s disease abnormal proteins aggregate to form plaques and tangles in the brain which progressively damage the brain and lead to severe cognitive decline. Scientists already knew that glucose and its break-down products can damage proteins in cells via a reaction called glycation but the specific molecular link between glucose and Alzheimer’s was not understood.But now scientists from the University of Bath Departments of Biology and Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy and Pharmacology, working with colleagues at the Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King’s College London, have unraveled that link.By studying brain samples from people with and without Alzheimer’s using a sensitive technique to detect glycation, the team discovered that in the early stages of Alzheimer’s glycation damages an enzyme called MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) which plays a role in immune response and insulin regulation.MIF is involved in the response of brain cells called glia to the build-up of abnormal proteins in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease, and the researchers believe that inhibition and reduction of MIF activity caused by glycation could be the ‘tipping point’ in disease progression. It appears that as Alzheimer’s progresses, glycation of these enzymes increases.The study is published in the journal Scientific Reports.Professor Jean van den Elsen, from the University of Bath Department of Biology and Biochemistry, said: “We’ve shown that this enzyme is already modified by glucose in the brains of individuals at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. We are now investigating if we can detect similar changes in blood.“Normally MIF would be part of the immune response to the build-up of abnormal proteins in the brain, and we think that because sugar damage reduces some MIF functions and completely inhibits others that this could be a tipping point that allows Alzheimer’s to develop.Dr Rob Williams, also from the Department of Biology and Biochemistry, added: “Knowing this will be vital to developing a chronology of how Alzheimer’s progresses and we hope will help us identify those at risk of Alzheimer’s and lead to new treatments or ways to prevent the disease.Dr Omar Kassaar, from the University of Bath, added: “Excess sugar is well known to be bad for us when it comes to diabetes and obesity, but this potential link with Alzheimer’s disease is yet another reason that we should be controlling our sugar intake in our diets.”Globally there are around 50 million people with Alzheimer’s disease, and this figure is predicted to rise to more than 125 million by 2050. The global social cost of the disease runs into the hundreds of billions of dollars as alongside medical care patients require social care because of the cognitive effects of the disease.The study was funded by the Dunhill Medical Trust. Human brain tissue for this study was provided through Brains for Dementia Research, a joint initiative between Alzheimer’s Society and Alzheimer’s Research UK in association with the Medical Research Council.
Share on Facebook Email Share on Twitter LinkedIn New research suggests that feeling highly valued by your racial, ethnic, or sexual minority group can have some negative consequences for your mental health.The new studies, published in the journals Group Processes & Intergroup Relations and European Journal of Social Psychology, suggest that people who view their everyday interactions through the lens of their ethnicity or sexual orientation are more likely to feel like they’ve suffered from discrimination.But feeling valued by a social group still appears to be more helpful than harmful to minorities’ mental health overall. Share Pinterest “In part, this work was motivated by a desire to better understand the social and psychological determinants of minorities’ mental health (and similarly, a desire to help understand and ultimately address persistent U.S. racial/ethnic health disparities),” explained study author Christopher T. Begeny of the University of Exeter.“I think it’s interesting that when we think about the topic of minority mental health what often comes to mind are minorities’ experiences with individuals outside their own minority group–namely, experiences with discrimination. And in fact over the past few decades this is where a lot of minority mental health research has been focused.”“As a result, we now have a wealth of evidence indicating that discrimination indeed plays an important role in shaping minorities’ mental health. For example, it’s been linked to greater anxiety, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress — not to mention numerous links to adverse physical health outcomes (e.g., hypertension, coronary heart disease, asthma, chronic bronchitis, risk for diabetes and stroke, greater risk for alcohol dependence and substance abuse).”“Only more recently have we seen an emerging body of research that focuses squarely on minorities’ intragroup experiences—and in particular, minorities’ experiences of feeling valued and admired among ethnic ingroup members. The current research aimed to start bringing those two areas of research together–examining the role that both minorities’ experiences with ingroup and outgroup members play, and considering the dynamic processes that link the two.”“In other words, in previous work on minority mental health the importance of intragroup relations has frequently been overshadowed by a focus on minorities’ intergroup experiences; namely, with discrimination. This line of research, by comparison, aims to provide an integrative framework for systematically examining both the influence of minorities’ inter- and intragroup experiences on health.“Ultimately, we think this not only creates a more rich and complete framework for understanding minorities’ mental health, but also gets closer to the reality of one’s everyday experiences, which often includes moving fluidly and frequently in between environments and encounters with ingroup and outgroup members. Thus, in part this research helps us begin to better understand the psychosocial dynamic that adjoins those experiences.”In two published articles, consisting of four studies with 1,087 participants in total, Begeny and his colleague Yuen J. Huo found evidence that feeling valued in one’s minority group acts as a double-edged sword for mental health.The studies examined Black, Asian, Latino, and gay Americans.The researchers found that highly identifying with one’s minority group led to more frequent perceptions of discrimination, which in turn predicted poorer mental health, such as increased levels of stress and depressive symptoms.“Intuitively, it seems like a good thing for individuals to feel valued within the different social groups they belong to. Yet the findings from our research suggest that for racial, ethnic and sexual minorities, while there are indeed clear benefits to feeling valued and admired within one’s respective minority group there may also be certain indirect costs,” Begeny told PsyPost.“These costs seem to arise in part because of the way that feeling valued within one’s minority group promotes vigilance to the various and sometimes insidious forms of discrimination that exist in our communities and institutions.”Though having a strong social identity has some negative outcomes, Begeny said that the overall effect was positive.“It is also very important to be clear about the following: in the studies we’ve conducted examining these potential benefits and costs, we always empirically test whether the benefits outweigh the costs. And in every study, we have consistently found that the benefits do in fact outweigh the costs,” he explained.“The results of this research consistently indicate that it is a good thing for members of stigmatized social groups to feel valued, admired and embraced by fellow minority group members (albeit perhaps carrying some potential indirect health costs as well). And so it is in a similar vein we suggest that promoting positive minority ingroup relations is important and beneficial to minorities’ health, overall.”There are also some ways for organizations to attenuate the negative consequences of a strong social identity, Begeny said.“Our research suggests that in educational institutions, and in companies and organizations, it is important to create spaces where positive minority ingroup relations can be developed and strengthened. On university campuses, this may include racial and ethnic-oriented living-learning communities (e.g., those at UCLA, UConn, UofIowa, etc),” Begeny told PsyPost. “And in companies/organisations, this may include minority-focused employee-based groups, such as Google’s ERGs (employee resource groups), which in part help connect and support employees who are, for example, part of the Gay community, Black and Hispanic employees, women, etc. (see https://diversity.google/commitments/ for a list of ERGs).”“We see these spaces as an asset and resource to their respective, broader educational or organizational community (not a source of division or segregation). Moreover, even if such spaces might have some (perhaps unanticipated) adverse implications for minorities’ health (as our research suggests; by heightening minorities’ vigilance to expressions of bias and discrimination on campus or at work, and ultimately fomenting psychological stress), it is important to keep in mind that: (a) the health benefits associated with these spaces will almost certainly outweigh any costs (again, as the results of our research indicate), and (b) the institution, company or organization within which these spaces exist might play a role in helping mitigate any potential adverse health effects (while preserving the benefits).”“For example, even if a university’s living-learning communities serve to, among other things, heighten minorities’ vigilance to extant forms of discrimination on campus, if the university also shows a sincere commitment to addressing such extant forms of bias and discrimination–in part by creating systems for reporting incidents of discrimination that are truly accessible, responsive and supportive–it might convey to students who experience discrimination on campus that their institution is genuinely committed to identifying, addressing and ultimately eliminating those extant forms of it,” Begeny said.“And that might meaningfully change one’s discrimination experience. For example, it may better enable one to feel that they have effective avenues for responding to that adverse experience, and that they are truly and more generally supported by their institution–both of which may serve as important resources to minority individuals, functionally and psychologically.”“Thus, ultimately, having access to these resources may help buffer some of the adverse effects of any such discriminatory experiences,” Begeny continued. “Moreover, if an institution is actively working to address extant forms of discrimination on campus, then the institution will hopefully, over time, actually be reducing the amount of discrimination that minorities encounter.”“And finally to note, such spaces on campus (and similar ones that exist within companies and organizations like Google) may help foment more collective action–that which aims to address extant forms of bias and discrimination within the institution,” Begeny added. “These opportunities for collective action might also ultimately serve as an important resource for minority individuals–providing a form of instrumental and psychological empowerment that can help mitigate the adverse effects of discrimination.”“All to say, and consistent with what our research findings suggest, we foresee these types of spaces playing a valuable and important role within educational institutions, companies, organizations, etc.”The two studies were titled: “Is it always good to feel valued? The psychological benefits and costs of higher perceived status in one’s ethnic minority group” and “When identity hurts: How positive intragroup experiences can yield negative mental health implications for ethnic and sexual minorities“.